Adam McCleod is a law professor. After being ticketed (wrongly) by a traffic camera, he fought the accusation, eventually securing vindication in court–and spending more than the cost of the ticket. Here he offers his views on the constitutionality of the criminal-civil proceeding initiated by a machine operated by a distant contractor in the absence of witnesses.

Incidentally, for everything that’s wrong with Minnesota, this is one thing that the state does right: traffic cameras are illegal.